Using Code-Recode to Detect Critical Thinking Aspects of Asynchronous Small Group CMC Collaborative Learning

Peter K Oriogun
London Metropolitan University

Diana Cave
Accenture, Consulting-System Integration & Technology User Experience


This article empirically validates an existing content analysis scheme and addresses a main concern of researchers about text-based, online transcripts in the form of code-recoding by mapping our scheme to the practical inquiry, cognitive presence model’s five phases directly to realise higher-order thinking or critical thinking aspects for our software engineering students at London Metropolitan University. Two case studies are presented from final year undergraduate students. We also evaluated a semi-structured CMC environment called SQUAD, developed in-house for scaffolding small group collaborative learning. We argue that the empirical study conducted with software engineering students in Hong Kong and London gives an indication that critical thinking or higher-order thinking certainly exists within online collaborative learning teams where knowledge emerges and is shared. We claim that responses in the integration and resolution categories are more pertinent to critical thinking or higher-order thinking in the context of online, small group, collaborative learning environments when using the cognitive presence model as a framework for measurement purpose.

About the Author(s)...

Peter K. Oriogun, Ph.D., MSc, FBCS, CITP is currently a Senior Lecturer in Software Engineering at London Metropolitan University, United Kingdom. He is the Course Director of the MSc Computing programme offered by London Metropolitan University. His current research interests are in semi-structured approaches to online learning, CMC transcript analysis, software life cycle process models, problem-based learning in computing, and cognitive engagement in online learning. Dr. Oriogun is a Chartered Fellow of the British Computer Society. Dr. Oriogun has over 20 years teaching experience in software engineering, computing, and online collaborative learning within Further and Higher Education institutions in the UK and extensive publication in this area of expertise. He may be contacted at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

Diana Cave, MSc, BSc is currently working as an IT Consultant for Accenture, specialising in user experience and business change projects. She has over 20 years experience working in information technology within the public and private sectors. Prior to joining Accenture, she worked for London Guildhall/London Metropolitan University as a Senior Lecturer in Business Information Technology, teaching and mentoring undergraduate and postgraduate students in usability engineering, project management business analysis, and software system development. Diana’s current research interests are in lead generation and the design of the user-interface. She may be contacted at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

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